NOTES AND REFERENCES

1. This article summarizes the research first published in the National Genealogical Society Quarterly (USA) Vol. 79 (March 1991): 19-32, and allows the correction of several unfortunate errors in the endnotes (see Correction in NGSQ Vol 79 (June 1991): 139).

2. The letter is from John H.5 Drake (James4, John3, Thomas2, Richard1) to Benjamin M. Drake, 10 May 1854. It quotes Matthew4 Drake (Richard3, Thomas2, Richard1) on the family and is printed in Mildred Talbert Petitt, Our Drake Family History and Descendants of the Three Drakes Who Married Three Talberts (Jerseyville, Ill.: Privately printed, 1962), 17. Unfortunately, the bulk of this work focuses on the Sir Francis Drake estate and the alleged descent of James4 Drake (John3, Thomas2, Richard1) from Sir Francis's family, without offering anything in the way of acceptable proof.

3. [Anonymous], "Drake of Isle of Wight and North Carolina," in John Bermett Boddie, ed., Historical Southern Families, 23 vols. (1957-80; reprinted, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,1974), 1:258-67. Other accounts may be found in Boddie, Seventeenth Century Isle of Wight County, Virginia (1938; reprinted, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co, 1973), 403-8; [Anonymous], History of Kentucky, 4 vols. (Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1928), 4: 411-14; and the Louisville, Kentucky, Courier-Journal, 4 July 1897, sec. 2, p. 8; and 8 August 1897, sec. 2, p. 8. See also P. H. Mell's introduction to "The Revolutionary War in North Carolina, Narrative of John Hodges Drake, of Nash County," Publications of the Southern History Association, no. 4 (Washington, D.C.: The Association, 1900), 14-21.

4. This James Drake was a headright of Robert Eley in 1639, according to Nell Marion Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, 3 vols. (Richmond: Press of the Dietz Printing Co., 1934; and Virginia State Library, 1977, 1979), 1: 114; and he witnessed a deed in Isle of Wight in 1644 (Boddie, Seventeenth Century Isle of Wight, 517). He apparently is the James Drake of Surry in 1664 (Surry Co. Deed Book 1, 1652-1671: 234, 236). He may have been related in an unknown way to the later Drakes of Isle of Wight, but he does not seem to enter the pedigree directly.

5. J. H. Wheeler, Historical Sketches of North Carolina from 1584 to 1851 (Philadelphia: Lippencott, Grumbo, 1851), 274-75. See also Mell, "The Revolutionary War in North Carolina." The following articles are representative of the many that purport to show a descent of James4 Drake (John3, Thomas2 , Richard1) from the family of Sir Francis: Laura D. S. Harrell, "Drakes of Devonshire, England; North Carolina, Kentucky, and Mississippi," in Boddie, ed., Historical Southern Families, 7: 120-29; 8: 1-5. Louisa Dasher Enloe, "Silas Drake of Marion County, Mississippi, and His Descendants," Journal of Mississippi History 27 (August 1965): 268-84. Laura D. S. Harrell, "The Genealogy of Benjamin Michael Drake, D.D., and His Descendants," Journal of Mississippi History 6 (January 1944): 39-45.

6. The British navigator and privateer Sir Francis Drake left no issue at his death in 1596; his brother Thomas fell heir to his estate. Descendants of Thomas appear to be extinct in the male line. Buckland Abbey is now the property of England's National Trust. The genealogical interest of many American Drakes was aroused in the late nineteenth century by a hope of inheriting the estate. An expectation of monetary gain has been generally abandoned; but several old, false lines remain to plague researchers.

7. Jo White Linn, Drake-Arrington, While-Turner, Linn-Brown and Two Dozen Related Lines (Salisbury, N.C.: Privately printed, 1984), 1-39. Linn is to be commended for her excellent work and scholarly approach to the Drake family.

8. The author is indebted to Dr. William M. Mann, who first suggested this approach to the problem and began the task more than thirty years ago, and to the late Hugh B. Johnston, who contributed to the effort.

9. Isle of Wight Deed Book 1: 128-29.

10. Isle of Wight Wills, Deeds, Etc.,Vol.2,1661-1719:67.

11. Richard Fern(e) was presumably one of the unnamed children referred to in the will of Timothy Fern(e) in 1651; see Boddie, Seventeenth Century Isle of Wight, 513.

12. The applicable statute in Virginia (Act XVIII of March 1657/58; Hening 1: 441-42) was not binding on indentures made in England but tended to reflect current practice.

13. Isle of Wight Wills, Deeds, Etc., Vol. 2, 1661-1719: 67.

14. Virginia Land Patents, Book 6, 1666 -1679: 641, cited in Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, 2: 183-84.

15. Virginia Land Patents, Book 6, 1666-1679: 683, cited in Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, 2: 198.

16. See, for example, Richard Slatten, "Interpreting Headrights in Colonial-Virginia Patents: Uses and Abuses," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 75 (September 1987): 169-79; and Charles E. Drake, "Virginia Headrights, Genealogical Content and Usage," Virginia Genealogical Society Quarterly 20 (April-June 1982): 50-52.

17. Virginia Land Patents, Book 7, 1679-1689: 182, cited in Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, 2: 243.

18. Isle of Wight Wills, Deeds, Etc., Vol. 2, 1661-1719: 241.

19. Ibid., 263.

20. Ibid., 278; a published abstract appears in Blanche Adams Chapman, Wills and Administrations of Isle of Wight County, Virginia. 1647-1800, 2 vols. (Smithfield, Va.: Privately printed, 1938), 1: 41.

21. Isle of Wight Wills, Deeds, Etc., Vol. 2, 1661-1719: 296, 299.

22. Boddie, Seventeenth Century Isle of Wight, 566.

23. R. Hargreaves-Mawdsley, Bristol and America (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1978), 47. This list has been more-recently transcribed and published in Peter Wilson Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607-1660 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1987). 393.

24. [Anonymous], "Isle of Wight County Records," William and Mary Quarterly, lst ser., 7 (April 1899):212.

25. H. E. Nott and Elizabeth Ralph, The Deposition Books of Bristol, 1650-1654, Bristol Record Society Publication No. 1 (Bristol, Eng.: The Society, 1948).

26. Baptismal Register, 1622-58, Saint Stephen's Parish, deposited at the Council House, Bristol.

27. Parish registers of various Bristol parishes; the Council House, Bristol.

28. Boddie, Seventeenth Century Isle of Wight, 204.

29. Sir Anthony Wagner, Drake in England (rev. ed., Concord: New Hampshire Historical Society, 1970), 16-23.

30. Lay Subsidy Rolls, Exchequer Records, E. 179, Public Record Office, London; Protestation Oath Roll of 1641, House of Lords Record Office, London.

31. H. P. R. Finberg, Tavistock Abbey A study in the Social and Economic History of Devon (Cambridge: University Press, 1951), 150-53.

32. Peter J. Bowden, The Wool Trade in Tudor and Stuart England (London: MacMilland and Co., 1962). 50-51, 170.

33. Baptismal Register, South Petherton Parish, Somerset.

34. Hargreaves-Mawdsley, Bristol and America, 47. If Mary is indeed an older child of Richard and Thomazine, then the seeming age gap between her and the younger boys may well be due to the death of siblings in the plague that struck the Bristol area in the late 1640s. Saint Stephen's Parish registers, for example, show that the family of Roger Drake, which consisted of several children, was all wiped out.

35. Baptismal Register, South Petherton Parish, Somerset.

36. Hargreaves-Mawdsley, Bristol and America, 47.

37. Baptismal Register, South Pethenon Parish, Somerset.

38. Coldham, Complete Book of Emigrants, 393.

39. Virginia Land Patents, Book 6,1666-1679: 641, 683; cited in Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, 2: 183-84, 198.

40. From the will of Thomas Parnell; see Isle of Wight Wills, Deeds, Etc., Vol. 2, 1661-1719: 278.

41. Virginia Land Patents, Books 7: 182, 8: 128; cited in Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, 2: 243, 358.

42. Richard Lee Morton, Colonial Virginia, 2 vols. (Chapel Hill: Univ. of N.C. Press, 1960), 1: 324.

43. Robert Stephen Wilson, "Court Orders of Isle of Wight County, Virginia, October 1693-May 1695," Virginia Genealogist 13 (April-June 1969): 79-80; Isle of Wight Deed Book 1: 128-29.

44. For references supporting the details on these children, see their individual sketches.

45. Baptismal Register, South Petherton Parish, Somerset.

46. Coldham, Complete Book of Emigrants, 393.

47. Isle of Wight Wills, Deeds, Etc., Vol. 2, 1661-1719: 67.

48 Virginia Land Patents, Book 6, 1666-1679: 683; cited in Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers, 2: 198.

49. Chowan County, North Carolina, Deed Book B, No. 1, 1715-1718, part 2: 478-79; abstracted in J. R. B. Hathaway, North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register 1 (October 1900): 615.

50. Bertie County, North Carolina, Deed Book B: 381-82.

51. Approximated from a consideration of all known records pertaining to him as well as to his putative antecedents and siblings.

52. Isle of Wight Deeds, Wills, Etc., Vol. 1: 13-15 [a separately paginated section at end of volume].

53. Bertie County Deed Book A: 34; cited in Linn, Drake-Arrington, While-Turner, Linn-Brown, 13.

54. Hathaway, "Miscellaneous Items from Court Records of Chowan Precinct at Edenton," N.C., North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register 1 (July 1900): 443.

55. Bertie County Deed Book A: 356-57.

56. Interested researchers should compare the legal descriptions of this land sold by Aaron and Scott (Bertie County Deed Book B: 381-82) with that purchased by Thomas Drake from Lawrence Hobby (Chowan County Deed Book B, No. 1, 1715-1718, part 2:478-79) and with the descriptions in the following deeds:

Lawrence Hobby to Aaron Drake 1723 100 acres Bertie County Deed Book A: 356-57

Lawrence Hobby to Robert Scott 1723 50 acres Bertie County Deed Book A: 213-14

Richard Washington to Robert Scott 1725 100 acres Bertie County Deed Book B: 92

57. For documentation, see his individual sketch.

58. Hathaway, "Abstract of Records, Book B, No. 1, Register of Deeds [Chowan County]," North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register 1 (January 1900): 156.

59. Secretary of State--North Carolina Wills, 1712-1722, 2: 256, in North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh.

60. For documentation, see his individual sketch.

61. Approximated from a consideration of all known records pertaining to him as well as to his putative antecedents and siblings.

62. Inventory of Arnold Drake, Secretary of State--North Carolina Wills, 1712-1722, 2:256.

63. Bertie County Deed Books B: 132; D: 245; E: 52.

64. Approximated from his marriage in 1702 and his death circa 1753-58. His wife Ann Griffin was born about 1681, from consideration of the marriages of her mother.

65. Southampton County, Virginia, Will Book 1: 254-55.

66. [Anonymous], "Browne of Isle of Wight and Southampton," in Boddie, Historical Southern Families, 6:208-9.

67. Virginia Land Patents, Books 10: 99, 120; 11: 254-55; 14: 285, Virginia State Archives, Richmond.

68. Will of Mary Boddie, Isle of Wight Will Book 3: 299; abstracted in Chapman, Wills and Administrations of Isle of Wight, 2: 60.

69. Southampton County, Virginia, Will Book 1:254-55.

70. John4 had to be born by 1702 in order to legally sign (as he appears to have done) the petition of Isle of Wight County males on 22 May 1723; see n. 96.

71. Southampton County, Va., Will Book 4: 9-10.

72. Approximated from a consideration of all known records pertaining to him as well as to his putative antecedents and siblings.

73. Release of dower, Southampton County Deed Book 2: 182.

74. Ibid.

75. Southampton County Deed Book 3: 49-50.

76. Virginia Land Patents, Book 10: 102, 108, Virginia State Archives.

77. Will of Mary Boddie, Isle of Wight Will Book 3: 299.

78. Southampton County Deed Book 3: 49-50.

79. As in the inventory of his estate, Southampton County Will Book 1: 127.

80. Approximated from the fact that he was a tithable (i.e., at least sixteen) in 1696 and was of legal age (i.e., twenty-one) in 1703--as well as from a detailed study of his children, with estimates of their dates of birth.

81. Southampton County Will Book 1: 124.

82. Richard Slatten and Edgar MacDonald, "Surry County Tithables, 1695,1696,1697," Magazine of Virginia Genealogy 24 (February 1986): 76.

83. Isle of Wight Deed Book 1: 388; abstracted in Boddie, Seventeenth Century Isle of Wight, 649.

84. Virginia Land Patents, Book 12: 455, Virginia State Archives.

85. Isle of Wight Great Book: 511; Isle of Wight Will Book 4: 137.

86. Southampton County Will Book 1: 124.

87. Approximated from the fact that a detailed study of the career of his eldest son Francis suggests a circa 1715 birth for Francis. Twenty-five was a common age, in this society, for males to marry and father their first child.

88. Virginia Land Patents, Book 10: 315, Virginia State Archives.

89. Virginia Land Patents, Book 12: 455, Virginia State Archives.

90. Virginia Land Patents, Book 25: 130, 168, Virginia State Archives.

91. Southampton County Will Book 1: 313-14.

92. For example, the articles by Harrel and Enloe, cited in n. 5. The reader, at first, is almost overwhelmed by the list of "proofs" cited in the articles. Upon close examination, however, evidence dissipates for the English connection. Certainly the evidence proves the descent of Francis, son of Bamfield Drake, from Thomas, brotherof Sir Francis; and certainly the descendants of James Drake of North Carolina are documented. However, there are no original or primary sources that support the two key contentions--i.e., that Francis, son of Bamfield, came to America; and that James Drake was born in England or was the son of Francis.

93. "Drake of Isle of Wight and North Carolina," in Boddie, Historical Southern Families, 1: 258-59.

94. Approximated from the fact that he was of legal age by 1722 but did not marry or enter land until 1725.

95. Secretary of State--North Carolina Wills, 1663-1789, 8: 68, North Carolina State Archives.

96. Colonial Papers, 1715-1728, folder 3 1, no.10, Virginia State Archives. The probable identifications of the six signers, listed at the left below, are shown in the right column.

 
Thos Drake Thomas3 (John 2, Richard1)
John Drake John3 (John2, Richard 1)
Richard Drake (R) Richard3 (John2, Richard1)
John Drake Junr John3 (Thomas2, Richard1)
Jno Drake Junr (I) John4 (Thomas3, John2, Richard1)
Richard Drake Junr Richard3, (Thomas 2, Richard1)
 

97. Bertie County Deed Book B: 84-85.

98. Secretary of State--North Carolina Wills, 1663-1789, 8: 68.

99. Northampton County, North Carolina, Deed Book 3: 84; Bertie County Deed Book B: 84-85.

100. Wheeler, Historical Sketches of North Carolina, 274-75.

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